Volume No. 11 Issue No.: 2 Page No.: 272-280 October-December 2016




Verma A. K.*, Saxena A.1, Gaur G.2 and Khan A. H.3

1. Department of Civil Engineering, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Lucknow (INDIA)
2. Department of Civil Engineering, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial Group of Professional Colleges, Lucknow (INDIA)
3. Environmental Monitoring Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow (INDIA)


Received on : September 9, 2016




Respirable particulate matter has been identified as the major air pollutant of the urban air environment. The vehicles fitted with latest technology engines, usage of CNG in vehicles, other combustion sources and formation as secondary pollutant has resulted in higher level of fine and ultrafine particles in the urban air environment. There are more likely chances in the increase of incidences of respiratory and mutagenic disease due to high levels of finer particulates. Therefore, in the revised National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) November, 2009 suspended particulate matter (SPM) was excluded and fine particulate fraction PM2.5 was included with existing PM10. This study was carried out at three urban locations and one control point in Lucknow city to identify the variation in the concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 across one year duration from November, 2013 to October, 2014. The annual average at Aliganj, Chowk and Talkatora for PM2.5 were 76.7, 75.9 and 79.3 g/m3 and that of PM10 were 179.5, 182.5 and 183.0 g/m3 respectively was higher than the control point; Kukrail (73.5 g/m3 and 163.7 g/m3). Almost equal ratio (PM2.5/10) at urban locations and control point (0.43) suggest the similar sources of air pollution across the city. The seasonal average of city during winter, summer and monsoon for PM2.5 (79.6, 78.9 and 73.5 g/m3) and for PM10 (190.0, 181.5 and 173.5 g/m3) indicates that the particulate levels were maximum, in winters followed by summer and monsoon with small variation. Since the sampling was performed only on non-rainy days, the increased activities of traffic and construction may be responsible to maintain the higher particulate levels soon after the rains are over. NAAQS limits were exceeded in case of both PM2.5 (Exceedance factor: 1.25) and PM10 (Exceedance factor: 1.64-1.83) can be considered to be an alarming indicator of adverse health effects for city dwellers. The relative death rate (RDR) for higher PM10 levels was estimated to be 8.2% for city area and 6.4% for control area. Similarly mortality rate for higher PM2.5 levels was estimated to be 6.48%, 9.72% and 12.96% for all-causes, cardiopulmonary and lung cancer respectively for the Lucknow during the study period. The persisting high particulate levels and estimated RDR rates suggest that there is a need to bring down the fine and respirable particulates to safeguard the health of the city dwellers.


Keywords : Respirable suspended particulate matter (PM10), NAAQS, Traffic density, Air pollution, Sampling