Volume No. 2 Issue No.: 4B Page No.: 796-807 April-June 2008




Arvind Kumar*, J.L.Bhagoria, and R.M. Sarviya

Department of Mechanical Engineering, M. A. N. I. T., Bhopal (India)


Received on : October 12, 2007




Energy consumption is on increase and the fossil fuels cannot last for ever. Today, the development scale of any country is measured by few parameters among which per capita energy consumption holds the most significant rank. Extensive fossil fuel consumption by human beings has led to some undesirable phenomena such as atmospheric and environmental pollutions. Consequently, global warming, greenhouse affect, climate change, ozone layer depletion and acid rain terminologies started to appear in the literature frequently1. There is an intimate connection between energy, the environment and sustainable development. A society seeking sustainable development ideally must utilize only eco-friendly resources. Increased energy efficiency is only partly helpful in overcoming the concerns regarding the limitations imposed on sustainable development by environmental emissions and atmospheric pollution. Clearly, a strong relation exists between energy efficiency and environmental impact since, for the same services or products, less resource utilization and pollution is normally associated with increased energy efficiency2. Global warming is on rise and ozone layer is depleting at a very fast rate. Ecological balance of the nature is under tremendous threat. Hence the sustenance of energy production has to be gradually become dependent on inexhaustible and clean sources of energy. This is where renewable energy assumes considerable importance. The demand of clean energy is increasing. Among renewable energy sources, solar energy tops the list due to its abundance, and more evenly distribution in nature than any other renewable energy types such as wind, geothermal, hydro, wave and tidal energies. Solar radiation is an integral part of different renewable energy sources. Sun is the inexhaustible source of energy and continuous supplier of solar radiation which provides stability to earth and links each livings species to it1. The present paper explores : (i) Discussion about the potential of solar energy for future uses as the major alternative among the renewable energy sources (ii) Applications of solar energy in terms of low and high temperature collectors (iii) Efficiency improvement of flat plate collectors (solar air heaters) using artificial roughness is given with future research directions (iv) Sustainable development through efficient solar air heaters.


Keywords : Solar energy, Sustainable development, Environment, Solar air heaters, Artificial roughness, Heat transfer, Efficiency.