Volume No. 3 Issue No.: 4 Page No.: 1057-1064 April-June 2009




Nisha Jain*1, Arti Sharma2 and S.C. Joshi3

1. Government College, Dausa
2. Government RR College, Alwar
3. Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan3, Jaipur (INDIA)


Received on : January 03, 2009




Recently there has been increased awareness of the possible effects of pesticides on male reproduction. Pesticides especially those having endocrine disrupting properties are known to impair reproductive competence of male under laboratory, field, clinical or occupational setting. There is a growing evidence of sterility in human and various other animals particularly in males due to various chemical and pesticides in the environment. Sperm Counts in the world have decline about 50% and continue to decrease an additional 2% per year. Since sperms are man’S immediate and personal connection to the future of our species and appearance of half of this connection is hard to ignore.
According to the present research work, exposure to pesticides is an important cause of this decline and causes deleterious effects on reproductive health. Several organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides have dramatic impact on male fertility. Taking rat as a biological indicator it has been found that endosulfan and malathion caused remarkable changes in weight, sperm cell dynamics hormonal and chromosome microdeletion analysis.
A significant reduction in the weight of testes and accessory sex organs was observed. The sperm dynamics showed asthenozoospermia (low sperm motility), oligozoospermia (low sperm count) and 80% negative fertility in all the pesticide treated rats. Testosterone was found to be decreased in both the pesticides. In cell population dynamics spermatids along with consistent impairment of primary and secondary spermatocytes were observed. The primary and secondary spermatocytes were reduced up to 90% with up to 80% reduction in spermatic cell population the sertoli cell and mature leydig cells were also reduced by 62-65%.
The infertility results on the above findings were further confirmed by sperm DNA damage test i.e. yq microdeletion analysis. Hence from the present investigation it has been found that pesticides are the major cause of ill reproductive health.


Keywords : Endosulfan, Malathion, Reproductive health parameters, Rat.